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How does RFID technology transmit information?

April 25,2021.

To understand how to transmit information remotely (sometimes over long distances), we need to understand fluctuations. Waves are disturbances that propagate in space or media such as air or water. Energy is transmitted through the medium, and the energy is transmitted in the form of regular pulses. The distance between these pulses is the wavelength, and the time between pulses determines the wave frequency.

Frequency affects the physical properties of waves. RFID uses longer wavelengths at the slower end of the electromagnetic spectrum, including radio waves and microwaves. In this range, the RFID system works in a smaller sub-range. For example, ultra-high frequency (UHF) wavelength span is 860-960 MHz, while near field communication (NFC) uses high-frequency signals near 13 MHz.

Active RFID systems are battery-powered and allow the ID chip to transmit signals on its own, while passive RFID systems require the scanner to first transmit radio signals so that the ID chip can transmit signals in turn. Here, we will introduce passive RFID systems because passive RFID systems have become more popular due to their convenience, robustness, and much smaller manufacturing capabilities. The three main components of a passive RFID system include:

Tag: RFID tag can be affixed to a remote object and consists of an antenna and an integrated circuit chip, which contains the data used to identify the object.

Scanner/reader: This device communicates with the tag by sending and receiving modulated RF signals.

Data processing system (ie computer): The RF wave reaching the reader is meaningless unless it matches the relevant information stored in the database. The host processing system stores all this information and can distribute it among other remote systems.

RFID technology is currently being applied in a wide range of fields. The RFID system composed of electronic tags, RFID readers(Active Rfid Reader and Passive rfid reader), antennas and application software is directly connected to the corresponding management information system. Every item can be tracked accurately. This comprehensive information management system can bring many benefits to customers.

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