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Analysis of the main functions of RFID reader

May 24,2023.

What is an RFID reader

The RFID reader is also called "RFID reader", that is, the radio frequency identification can automatically identify the target object and obtain relevant data through the radio frequency identification signal, without manual intervention, it can identify high-speed moving objects and can identify multiple RFID tags at the same time, and the operation is fast and convenient . There are fixed and handheld RFID readers, and handheld RFID readers include low-frequency, high-frequency, and ultra-high frequency.

RFID readers have been widely used in various fields, such as in the manufacturing industry, with RFID electronic tags becoming more and more prominent in production, transportation and warehouse management, replacing barcode scanning in the production process to achieve automatic data collection; material pulling link cooperation AGV car transportation; warehouse link management of goods in and out, inventory, etc. Applied in vehicle management to realize automatic identification of vehicles, using long-distance RFID readers, it can realize fast lanes without parking, free of cards, or unattended weighing of vehicle entry and exit.

How RFID Readers Work
The RFID reader communicates wirelessly with the RFID electronic tag through the antenna, and can read or write the tag identification code and memory data. Among them, electronic tags are also called radio frequency tags, transponders, and data carriers; readers are also called readout devices, scanners, and communicators. The space (non-contact) coupling of radio frequency signals is realized between the electronic tag and the reader through the coupling element. In the coupling channel, energy transmission and data exchange are realized according to the timing relationship. There are two types of coupling of RF signals between the reader and the electronic tag:

1. Inductive coupling: Transformer model, coupling is realized through spatial high-frequency alternating magnetic field, based on the law of electromagnetic induction.

2. Electromagnetic backscatter coupling: The radar principle model, the emitted electromagnetic waves are reflected after hitting the target, and at the same time carry back the target information, based on the spatial propagation law of electromagnetic waves.

The main categories of RFID readers:
1. According to the communication method, it can be divided into two categories: reader-first and label-first;
2. According to the application mode, it can be divided into fixed reader, portable reader, integrated reader and modular reader.

The main functions of the RFID reader:
1. Read and write label information;
2. When the tag is passive or semi-passive, the reader is required to provide energy to activate the electronic tags around the field and read the information;
3. The reader can use some interfaces to communicate with the computer network and transmit information to the computer;
4. Able to correctly identify multiple tags within its working range;
5. For some errors in the identification process, the reader can send out error messages;
6. It can read the total battery power and remaining power of the active tag.

The components of the RFID reader:
1. RFID antenna
It is mainly responsible for converting the current signal in the reader into a radio frequency carrier signal and sending it to the RFID reader, or receiving the radio frequency carrier signal sent by the tag and converting it into a current signal. The design of the antenna has a great influence on the working performance of the reader. It is very important to say that for the tag, its working energy is all provided by the reader's antenna.

2. RFID radio frequency interface module
This module is the RF front end of the RFID reader, mainly responsible for the transmission and reception. The modulation circuit modulates the signal to be sent before sending it, and the demodulation circuit amplifies the signal sent by the tag to ensure signal reception. The RFID radio frequency interface module is also a key part that affects the cost of the reader.

3. Reader logic control module
The logic control module is the control center and intelligent unit of the entire reader. When the reader is working, the logic control module sends instructions, and the interface module performs different operations according to different instructions. The microcontroller can complete signal encoding and decoding, data encryption and decryption, and execute anti-collision algorithms. The storage unit is responsible for storing some programs and data, and the application interface is responsible for communication with input or output.

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